Glycol ethers uses
Glycol ethers are a large group of organic solvents used in industry and the home as glass cleaners, carpet cleaners, floor cleaners and oven cleaners. They are. Low toxicity, reduction of surface tension, and good solvency for both polar and nonpolar materials is provided by these for cleaners. They are also used in the. An MSDS lists the hazardous chemical contents of a product, describes its health and safety hazards, and gives methods for its safe use, storage. AUTO BETTING SOFTWARE DOWNLOAD
The chemical profiles of the glycol ethers used have markedly changed in recent years. In France, since , numerous regulatory provisions have been formulated with respect to the derivatives of the ethylene series classified as products endowed with reproductive toxicity [CMR classification]; restriction of use in industrial environments and prohibition of use in products for household use for certain derivatives with a view to promoting their gradual replacement by derivatives of the propylene series, which are reported to be less toxic.
In this context, the Minister of Health asked Afsse 1 to review the new toxicological data that had emerged since the Inserm collective expertise report of the subject published in In the context of a partnership agreement with Inserm, Afsse asked Inserm to update the toxicological and epidemiological data of the collective expert report on the basis of the scientific and gray literature published from to In response to that request, Inserm formed a group of experts with skills in ecotoxicology, clinical and environmental toxicology, developmental biology and reproduction, and epidemiology.
The following questions were raised to the expert group: What are the toxicokinetics of the glycol ethers first marketed since ? What are the recent data on the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of all glycol ethers? What are the recent data on the effects of glycol ethers with respect to reproduction, embryonic and fetal development, and teratogenicity?
What are the recent data on the bone marrow toxicity, immunotoxicity and hemotoxicity of glycol ethers? What are the results of the epidemiological studies published since and addressing the occupational environment and overall population? What are the new effects of glycol ethers on human health that have been evidenced since ? What is the assessment of the effects of new glycol ethers on humans? Which glycol ethers were not taken into account in the expert review and have since been incorporated in the analysis?
The search enabled retrieval of 21 reports published since together with 4 risk assessment reports undergoing finalization two glycol ethers and their acetates , for which France is the rapporteur, and which were supplied by the French National Institute for Research and Safety INRS. In addition, the document base included scientific publications obtained by searching French and international databases Medline, Embase, Toxline, Pascal, Biosis and consisted of references.
Lastly, glycol ethers manufacturers were contacted through the French Oxygenated solvent producers association OSPA , the French Chemical industry association UIC , and the French Federation of the paint, ink, color, dye and adhesive industries FIPEC in order to provide the expert group with the toxicological data obtained since with respect to all the substances, including the new compounds. In the course of six working sessions held from October to July , the experts formulated a critical analysis and review of the work published on the various aspects addressed.
Toxicokinetics Due to their amphiphilic nature, glycol ethers readily cross membranes and are distributed in the aqueous and lipid compartments. Strongly absorbed irrespective of the penetration route oral, cutaneous, pulmonary , glycol ethers are distributed through most biological tissues, including fetal tissues.
However, the precise distribution data on each of the glycol ethers remain fragmentary. Data from pharmacological studies of DEGEE in the rat support the finding that glycol ethers are distributed through all tissues and particularly the liver, kidneys and bone marrow. Following absorption, the enzyme systems convert glycol ethers to water-soluble compounds that are more readily eliminated or to reactive metabolites responsible for toxic effects. Nonetheless, with regard to di- or triethylene derivatives, the proportions of intermediate and final metabolites formed have yet to be fully elucidated.
Associated with toxicity studies on the metabolites themselves, this type of data enables, first, enhanced evaluation of the toxic potential of di- or triethylene derivatives and, secondly, determination of the metabolite to be assayed in the context of human exposure studies. Hemotoxicity With regard to the hematological toxic effects of glycol ethers, the data published since do not fundamentally modify our knowledge of those effects but provide some valuable complementary informations.
These data confirm the hemolytic effects of EGBE in the rat and elucidate the natural history of hemolytic accidents: these accidents are preceded by a decrease in erythrocyte plasticity, erythrocyte deformation spherocytosis, stomatocytosis and an increase in corpuscular volume. When hemolysis is marked, it is complicated by intravascular coagulation giving rise to disseminated thromboses and infarctions, hemoglobin precipitation in renal tubules inducing tubular necrosis, and the emergence of hematopoietic foci outside of the bone marrow.
The hemolysis induced by EGBE in the rat is not, in fact, of a specific nature and very similar phenomena are observed in the course of all hemolytic diseases. EGBE-induced hemolysis in the rat thus constitutes a good animal model of hemolytic disease. Use of the model has enabled enhanced elucidation of the procoagulant effects of hemolytic accidents.
Human erythrocytes are highly resistant to the hemolytic effects of BAA. In the rat, females are more sensitive than males to the effects of EGBE, but the difference does not reflect a greater fragility of female erythrocytes: it results from toxicokinetic differences between the sexes. The mechanism underlying the effects of EGBE on erythrocytes has yet to be fully elucidated but the primum movens appears to be increased sodium and water influx.
Although ethylene glycol monomethyl ether is not appreciably irritating to skin, it can be absorbed in toxic amounts. Experience with human exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has indicated that it can result in the appearance of immature leucocytes, monocytic anaemia, and neurological and behavioural changes. Studies have also shown that inhalation exposure in humans can lead to forgetfullness, personality changes, weakness, lethargy and headaches.
In animals, inhalation of higher concentrations can result in testicular degeneration, damage to the spleen, and blood in the urine. Animal studies have shown anaemia, thymus and marrow damage at ppm. At 50 ppm during pregnancy in animals, major foetal abnormalities were reported. The most important health effect seems to be the effect on the human reproductive system, with diminished spermatogenesis. Thus, it is evident that the monomethyl ether of ethylene glycol is a moderate toxic compound and that repeated skin contact or inhalation of vapour must be prevented.
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether cellosolve solvent; Dowanol EE; 2-ethoxyethanol. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether is less toxic than the methyl ether above. The most significant toxic action is on the blood, and neurological symptoms are not expected.
In other respects it is similar in toxic action to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Excessive exposure can result in moderate irritation to the respiratory system, lung oedema, central nervous system depression and marked glomerulitis.
In animal studies, foetotoxicity and teratogenicity were seen at levels above ppm, and behavioural changes in offspring were obvious after maternal exposure at ppm. Other ethylene glycol ethers. Mention of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether is also in order because of its extensive use in industry.
In rats, deaths in response to single oral exposures are attributable to narcosis, whereas delayed deaths result from lung congestion and renal failure. Direct contact of the eye with this ether produces intense pain, marked conjunctival irritation and corneal clouding, which may persist for several days. As with monomethyl ether, skin contact does not cause much skin irritation, but toxic amounts can be absorbed. Inhalation studies have shown that rats can tolerate 30 7-hour exposures to 54 ppm, but some injury occurs at a concentration of ppm.
At higher concentrations, rats exhibited haemorrhaging in the lungs, congestion of the viscera, liver damage, haemoglobinuria and marked erythrocyte fragility. Foetotoxicity has been seen in rats exposed to ppm, but not at 50 ppm. Enhanced erythrocyte fragility was evident at all exposure concentrations above 50 ppm of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether vapours. Humans appear to be somewhat less susceptible than laboratory animals because of apparent resistance to its haemolytic action.
While headache and eye and nasal irritation was seen in humans above ppm, red blood cell damage was not found. Both the isopropyl and n-propyl ethers of ethylene glycol present particular hazards. These glycol ethers have low single-dose oral LD50 values and they cause severe kidney and liver damage. Bloody urine is an early sign of severe kidney damage. Death usually occurs within a few days. Eye contact results in rapid conjunctival irritation and partial corneal opacity in the rabbit, with recovery requiring about 1 week.
Like most other ethylene glycol ethers, the propyl derivatives are only mildly irritating to the skin but can be absorbed in toxic amounts. Furthermore, they are highly toxic via inhalation. Fortunately, ethylene glycol monoisopropyl ether is not a prominent commercial compound. Diethylene glycol ethers. The ethers of diethylene glycol are lower in toxicity than the ethers of ethylene glycol, but they have similar characteristics. Polyethylene glycols. Triethylene, tetraethylene, and the higher polyethylene glycols appear to be innocuous compounds of low vapour pressure.
Propylene glycol ethers. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether is relatively low in toxicity. In rats, the single oral dose LD50 caused death by generalized central nervous system depression, probably respiratory arrest. Eye contact resulted in only a mild transitory irritation. It is not appreciably irritating to the skin, but confinement of large amounts of the ether to rabbit skin causes central nervous system depression.
The vapour does not present a substantial health hazard if inhaled.
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