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It shall endeavour to alleviate the intellectual isola- tion of persons in communities ofdeveloping countries which might otherwise become a reason for their moving to developed countries". Simi- lar tasks are attributed to UNU in the field of post-graduate training aimed to assist scholars, especially young scholars, to participate in re- search, and also to undertake the training of persons who will serve in international or national technical assistance programmes, particularly with regards to an interdisciplinary approach to the problems which they will be called upon to deal.
If we consider only such as- pects as the purposes and tasks af- forded to UNU, we may easily become aware of its humanistic and more pre- cisely, new humanistic orientation. Situated at the international level and in the framework of the strategy towards a better and more just world-. Such endeavours are very close to UNESCO programmes on knowledge trans- fer as an argument towards a huma- nistic solution to major problems.
The humanistic orientations of the United Nations University are specified in its substantive research tasks: "The research programmes of the University shall include, among other subjects, coexistence between peoples having different cultures, languages and social systems; peace- ful relations between States and the maintenance of peace and security; human rights; economic and social change and development; the environ- ment and the proper use of resources; basic scientific research and the ap- plication of the results of science and technology in the interest of de- velopment'; and universal human values related to the improvement of the quality of life".
To better evaluate the way in which UNU succeeded to fulfil such ambitions and complex tasks, the re- pertory of UNU publications [October is of real help. Listing all titles published by the University those available for general sale to the public, and the series of pro- gramme- documente and research papers intended for limited distribution within the UNU system , this reper- tory gives a global image of UNU's main fields and results.
The priorities are evident: some of the most difficult global problems of our time were chosen as key-subjects of UNU's aca- demic efforts. With regard to the first pro- gramme, some guide-lines are deli- neated by a large diversity of mono- graphs, case-studies, workshops and expert panels. These various aspects include renewable natural resources such as the social and environmental aspects of decertification, research and training for management of arid lands, strategies for improved mana- gement of drylands, research on rural energy systems or on coastal resource management.
Among new energy resources, the solar one has attracted the in- terest of many scientists. The first workshop organized by UNU in Algiers in elaborated on the plans for the Integrated Solar Village Project in Algeria as a new resource of ener- gy for rural communities.
Besides, the programme promoted efficient stu- dies such as those on an interdisci- plinary dialogue on world hunger, in- terfaces between agriculture, nutri- tion and food science, or about the complex problem of protein energy re- quirements of developing countries The report of the working group on the. Even more complex is the third programme on human and social deve- lopment. Numerous programme documents and research paper series have been completed.
There are three main pro- jects within this programme, namely: 1 Socio-cultural development alter- natives in a changing world with sub-p. In order to draw a comprehen- sive insight in UNU's activities, we will deal more with the GPID project in which the author of this paper was directly involved.
Since the very beginning 2 , the project was aimed at providing a forum for different schools of thought on basic questions of development strategy, with an em- phasis on seeing goals, processes, and indicators of human development as interrelated rather than separate en- tities, a common thread being a con- cern with human needs, both material and non-material. The structure of sub-projects which give an image of the large scope was formulated as follows: J. GOALS: ,1 concepts of development; 2 needs; 3 rights; 4 alternative ways of life; 5 visions of desirable societies; 6 visions of desirable worlds.
PROCESSES: 1 theories of develop- ment; 2 expansion and exploitation processes; 3 liberation and autonomy processes; 4 militarization; 5 pro- cesses of the United Nations system; 6 Alternative strategies and scena- rios. TOOLS: 1 dialogues;" 2 networks; 3 semiotics; 4 mathe- matics; 5 forms of presentation; B methods of analysis; 7 interre- gional studies. Obviously, even this structure of the sub-projects proves the new feature of the research strategy which aims not only to answer the most pressing questions of social reality dynamics but mainly to em- power through scientific inquiry and social commitment the people which are less powerful in order that they become masters of their own lives.
Typically, the first report described the relationship among goals, process- es and indicators: "The goals and processes are related to each other in two ways. On the objective level, the goals of people and the goals of decision-makers are part of the so- cial processes and have to be studied in this context. Prior to the summer of there were 45 meetings of sub- projects, sub-groups and the full net- work which were organized in 29 sub- projects and study-groups. C4 One of the most impressive ex- perience of GPID project history is the extensive co-operation between many research institutes, universities and other institutions and their real and fruitful dialogue in the common scientific endeavour which lasted five years.
The recent meetings of Integration group A New Delhi and group B and C Athens prepared the synthetical report for the Colombo network which was to conclude the work. More than papers on differ- ent subjects, numerous scientific se-.
Of course, not all tasks and aims originarily established for UNU were completely fulfilled. Nor all expectations fully satisfied and not all achievements were above criticism. Some, people are criticizing the unsatisfactory practical efficiency of the work'done. Some people object to the programme priorities, other to the scientific validity or the practical outputs, especially in-regard to costs. There are also critics on the "westerniza- tion" of some of the projects, or in other words, on their low value for real third world problems and on the unrealistic solutions proposed as con- clusions of such studies.
Perhaps not. The GPID project promotes within the United Nations University such' a dialogue without ignoring the -diffi- culties which are unavoidable. But, as was pointed out by the Expert Group on Human and Social Development, UNU has a role to play in the dia- logues promoting contemporary scien- tific revolution. It should serve as a meeting ground for the articulation, compari- son and confrontation of different approaches" '.
As stressed by the same author, the conditions which should be fulfilled by the United Nations University are defined in the report of another SOP meeting as follows: a openness to new forms of organiza- tion and modes of working; b maximum decentralization of functions; c creating the preconditions for creative research; d creation of a critical forum for the exchange of ideas from different cultural tradi- tions and e continuing exploration of the dynamics of learning.
The valuable even sometimes justified object of critics experi- ence. Chombart de Lauwe editor. This approach, adopted in this article, is obviously limited, as it provides an answer only to a very - small part of the problem. It has nevertheless the advantage of high- lighting the concrete questions re- lated with this problem without pre- tending to indicate the best solutions. The experience we are referring to matured during research at the Institute of Pedagogy and Moral Phi- losophy of Naples University.
This re- search, started in and still in progress, is aimed at checking a territorial model for programming edu- cation in a school district in Campania. In this article we shall merely indicate a few elements which are essential to the discourse we want to develop. The "territorial model" which is based on the "education local theory" starts with the analysis of the "local educational demand" existing in a socio-economical and cultural micro-area.
It takes into account problems arising from global community development in this micro- area, decodes them into various needs economical, housing, medical, ad- ministrative, social, etc. The "territorial model", based on this type of analysis, is used in program- ming and carrying out educational activities, within and outside of schools, as well as adult educational activities, designed to mest the edu- cational requirements related with other territorial development re- quirements.
Since they are directlyrelated to the local reality, botn the time of. The educational programmes thus drawn up are tied to the socio- economical and cultural development programmes of the area. One could say, that the education territorial model methodologically, looks like a "par- ticipative research integrated" to the development requirements of a given area.
Territory contributions to research These rather brief notes are certainly not sufficient to give an idea of the work involved in several years of research. But it is possible to take up some of the relation- " ships which, through research, pro- gressively were installed between university reality and its environ- ments.
Theoretical questions, no doubt, are very much in force. Some of them raise the problem of the de- finition and the role of research in educational sciences, particu- larly when this research gets out of the safety of academic protection and confronts interlocutors who are distant or even hostile. By this we are not trying to claim that scien- tific work is not faced without dif- ficulty, even within its own insti- tution.
There are difficulties and many of them, ranging from the most essentially formal problems of dis- cipline codification to those which are more specifically related with the internal organization of univer- sity work. But, since we are deal- ing with fields of analysis which directly investigate man, the episte- mologic and theoretical feed-back which may result from the impact with real human situations, is not a se- condary factor.
The introduction of the experi- mental method in educational sciences has certainly contributed to a large extent, in emphasizing the picture of the real man rather than that of the ideal man. In the analysis of the educational process, however, this reversed trend introduced in modern science does not always parallel a reversal" in the methodological ap- proach. Even in cases where the in- ductive method superseded the deduct- ive method,research often continued 'to justify itself and Justify its re- sults from inside its conceptual and organizational set-up rather than in connection with its outside interlocutors.
This is confirmed by the way research proceeds: its language tends to differ from the common language, its operational concepts are generally unknown to the public, its problems cannot always be related with those of the man in the street and its results cannot always be translated and made understandable to the general public. In the research on the "educa- tion territorial model" it was essential to link the situation out- side the university in order not to fall in the contradiction of drawing 10up a prior theoretical model dealing with the education of local communi- ties without having been in contact with its territorial reality.
However, although essential, this condition was net sufficient in itself to gua- rantee an active function of local , reality in the theoretical elabora- tion of the model. The relationship between university research and the territory might have been unilateral.
It was thus necessary to over- come the laboratory working system where there was no real communication between researcher and the people covered by this research. In other words, it was necessary for the re- search participants to co-participate in drawing-up the model. It can be called "in principle" because many of its compo- nents had been defined with a degree of conceptual approximation, either because they were not sufficiently clear, or because they were momenta- rily "in abeyance" of expectation from the "field".
The "field" condition, rather than being used to validate or invalidate the assumption, was des- tined for defining it more precisely at a time when it was endangered by experimentation. It must be said that the theo- retical contributions of the "field", to the territorial model were not small in number nor in importance, on the contrary, without the large range of variables and contents contributed by.
At best, the re- search group would have produced a rational construction based on itself, but without any guarantee of possible implementation. This idea may be cla- rified by a few examples of develop- ment of the model through the work of local participants in the research. Originally the model assertion was within the territorial model as- sumption, but the way in which to con- ceive its connection with other re- quirements was understood only when local participants in the research clarified the concrete, real and urgent problems of their daily life.
It was only the beginning of a clari- fication which still requires a large amount of scientific formalization. But it must be acknowledged that it has been possible in this way to grasp what the researcher in his intellec- tual aristocracy would not have appre- hended easily by himself.. Another example concerns the finalization of one of the question- airs for the analysis of local educa- tional demand.
It is a fact that the solution defined by the researchers proved inadequate after one single meeting with the local operators and the public from various local agen- cies. The discussion on this subject brought arguments and analysis pros- pects which had been missed by the researchers, and produced a "pattern of discussion" which was subsequently used and improved in other communes of the zone covered by the research exercise.
One could quote many more examples. The whole research expe- rience has benefited from this "umbi- lical cord" which fed it in the way of theoretical, methodological and technical solutions. We could also say and this is not a principle, even though there is obviously food for thought, that the most important dead- locks of the theoretical work have been overcome by the university group when it went from the university to the "field".
The resulting lesson may be expressed as follows: educational sciences on the wnole range of human sciences achieve an amount of theo- retical explanation and social trans- formation as more room is given to the voice of ordinary man, his 11problems and his needs for changes. Research contributions to the territory If we look at the university territory relationship, the advantages which empirical knowledge of the man in the street may derive from its relation with the scientific knowledge are certainly remarkable.
We could, in this connection, speak of "scienti- fic humanism" to refer to a science which, leaving the milieu of special- ists, becomes the inheritance of a larger and larger public. It is, from this point of view, a surpassing of the "scientific mind" as it progres- sively establishes itself in the intel- lectual elite of the modern age.
We do not intend in this article to make a historical analysis of the relationship between intellectuals and the people. In modern advanced societies and in the present crisis of ideologies and economic recession, there exists an argument that the search for a "new economic order" and for a "new quality of life" goes through a democratization of knowledge. More and more classes of society ob- tain access to the management of in- formation and education at a higher level. In this context, the university seems to be in the foreground as the privileged centre of collaboration of scientific knowledge and its dis- tribution, from school to adult educa- tion centres and from the communica- tion media to educational interven- tions for the benefit of local communities.
Educational research contributes to the establishment of criteria and methods of co-operation between re- searchers and operators for the deve- lopment of disciplinary and inter- disciplinary answers to the educa- tional demand of the general public. This is the approach used for conti- nuous educational research-interven- tion in the Phlegrean zone.
It is obviously a limited work with some shortages, which, to a small extent supplied the group of researchers with important information which we shall briefly review. Since this research intervention centered upon the organization of edu- cational answers to the educational demand of some local communities, its precise objective was to elaborate on objective knowledge based on subjective knowledge of a large group of children or adults from the considered zone. A few quick comments follow which give an idea of the problems that arose as a result of the encoun- ter between scientific knowledge carried out by the researchers, and empirical knowledge expressed by local operators and by the population: One of the major obstacles was the difficulty of communication be- tween the two types of knowledge and the resistance to new knowledge.
Local power organization and the balance of an interiorized way of living were threatened. The difficulty to communi- cate is due to two different types of codes used to read real facts, each one having grown firmer in time with opposite rules, of interpretation for instance "magic" as opposed to "ra- tional" and with different expressive languages "restricted" as opposed to "widened", according to Bernstein. On the other hand, it should be kept in mind that this progressive separa- tion is the result of a historical process and not of an irreversible condition.
If both fields of know- ledge and consequently their respec- tive carriers have moved away from one another, it is also due to the national and international policies of jealous safeguards of scientific power for the exclusive use of the establishment. The linking of these two inter- pretative systems of facts, which corresponded to two systems of living organized differently and, often, de- pendent on one another, was therefore painful and not automatic. It is therefore obvious that the university, the privileged centre of scientific research in its impact with external reality, pays a "historical" price 12of separate institutions.
Because of this, the university itself and its researchers, may easily appear as a higher authority to which one must bow and whose doctrines must be ac- cepted passively. In other words, the university becomes an impenetrable authority with which one has very little to share as it belongs to a world remote from the problems of daily life. In a different way, there is a phenomenon of rejection which prevents the osmosis between university and territory, between scientific knowledge and empirical knowledge.
Therefore it is necessary to develop studies and experiments which connect both realities. Strategies, methods and techniques need to be developed and provide solutions, which can re- consile points which were initially opposed. However, as soon as the re- search succeeds in overcoming this difficulty through permanent contact with the territory and through a pro- gressive adjustment of working tools in local situations, another diffi- culty as tricky arises immediately.
Once communication has been set up between the empirical knowledge of the local operators and the popu- lation and the scientific knowledge of specialists, it has been noticed that scientific interpretations re- quired a modification of either daily attitudes or choices made in the dif- ferent fields of local but also re- gional policies.
However, the change in attitudes and choices meant, in some cases, a perturbation of communi- ty internal life and the question- ing of psychological certainties and traditional mental habits. This ex- plains the resistance and conflicts which arose around the research in- tervention. For example, in some cases, attempts at boycotting by certain poli- tical forces or local power centres were obvious. In other cases these attempts were more underhanded. In still other cases, there was a lack of understanding and bursts of ten- sion against the researchers or among the various local authorities.
More extensive co-operation was finally achieved between local operators in order to devise entirely new solutions to specific development problems of the commune or the" zone, such as the proposal to create an "Institute of Studies and management of education in the territory". Conclusions These last thoughts open the way to another very important theme which is only exposed here as a brief conclusion.
This theme deals with the trend which the development of scientific education in the general public may follow and the institutional position the university may assume within the society to which it belongs. It is obvious that scientific humanism to be credible on the threshold of year , cannot keep on playing on the heavy ambiguity of science mentality and, consequently, on the asepticity of scientific research. It should explain with whom and for whom it works.
The university and society which support it must positively cla- rify their scientific policy and must specify whether they are in favour of maintaining the status quo by keeping the university and research as separate social entities or whether they will open the request of "well-being" for the public at large. Naples, Rerraro, , p. Firenze, La Nuova Italia, , p. La ricerca nellariforma universitaria: pro- blemi e proposte Research in the university reform: problems and proposals.
Research for the People - Research by the Peovle. A Step towards the reform of University? Scienza e rea- lismo Science and Realism. Milano, Feltrinelli, , pp. Bari, Laterza, , pp. Firenze, La Nuova Italia, , pp. Bologna, II Mulino, , pp. Torino, Tirrenia- Stampatori, , pp. Ricerche pedagogiche nella didattica universitaria Educational research in university didactics. It should be noted that the article was originally drafted in the first half of , implying that certain elements might have changed since then.
The Need for a Human Rights Institute in Canada While there has been an unpre- cedented evolution in national and international law and institutions for the promotion of human rights, the educational world has not kept pace. Outside of law schools, very little human rights teaching goes 14on in universities or, for that matter, secondary schools. Even in law schools, it is only within the past decade that civil liberties topics have become part of Constitutional Law courses or otherwise a distinct part of the curriculum.
It is interesting to note that in August , Unesco adopted a seven year plan for the development of human rights teaching, which con- templates the integration of national programmes with those at regional and world levels. The Institute is planned to respond to Canada's commitment to the advancement of human rights.
Given the current debate and discussion in our country, the time is right to pro- ceed with the formation of an inde- pendent, academically-based organiza- tion which will concern itself with human rights education. Probably the major human rights issue in Canada today is the improve- ment of the status and living stan- dards of Native peoples. Although the constitutional status of the Amerin- dian and Inuit peoples, and the issue of aboriginal rights, land claims and settlement of these, are specialized subjects somewhat peripheral to hu- man rights issues, the position and condition of non-status Indians and Metis, as well as many Native people who come to urban centres are human rights issues — partly the same as those faced by other disadvantaged groups, and partly unique.
The Insti- tute would have to concern itself in this area. It is here that the two Canadian legal systems operate within one institu- tion, the most fully bilingual uni- versity in Canada. On top of that. In addition, Ottawa is a natural base for regular contact with other non-governmental, private orga- nizations involved in the field of human rights.
Both Sections of the Faculty of Law have given their support to the Institute by way of release time to the Director and Associate Director. The University will allocate space and has agreed to accept funds for the Institute through its regular grants-receiving procedures. In line with this, the Institute will be involved in the following: 1] The collection of informa- tion on human rights in both the international and Canadian arenas: legislation, conventions and texts of treaties; decisions of courts and ad- ministrative agencies, both national and international; legislative de- bates, as well as summary records of commissions and committees; monographs.
It is in- tended to add these materials to existing libraries at the University rather than to establish a separate Institute library. Once the material is compiled and catalogued, it could be transmitted through a micro-fiche index, to other libraries in Canada. It is most important that people such as these be given support through the senior fellowships to collect and reproduce their documents, files, memoranda and to write their memoirs and auto-biographies to add to the very meagre archival and library materials on this history.
Subsequently, the research fa- cilities built up should enable the Institute to attract one or two senior and several junior scholars for term appointments of a year or more, the funding- of which can be realized from public agencies. In reference to the "teaching activities" mentioned later, one could contemplate the senior "scholars" or "fellows" participating in courses at the University and supervising graduate students. In turn, it would be worth considering some graduate students for appoint- ments as junior "fellows".
Programmes of instruction, seminars and workshops would be considered, probably in the following order of priority: 1 Courses on human rights in both the domestic and international arenas should be provided for both undergraduate and graduate students. It would be expected that in addition to these activities in the two sec- tions of the law school, the Insti- tute would be involved in stimulating and, if necessary, in helping the de- velopment of courses in other facul- ties at this, and other universities.
These two, as well as one other mem- ber from each Section and one member from each faculty having an interest in the work of the Institute, will constitute the Executive. In addition, for the sake of the Institute and its acceptability as a centre of human rights study in Canada, as well as for the people concerned, the Insti- tute will establish a Board of Asso- ciates [who might number 30 to 50 across the country , who are engaged in human rights teaching or research or who are involved in human rights work either with government agencies or non-governmental organizations.
Initial contact with a number of pro- minent persons in this field confirms the relevance of and interest in this type of structure. The accumu- lation and indexing of a comprehensive collection of materials will certainly assist scholars and researchers, re- gardless of their permanent location. The ongoing programme of senior and junior fellows and researchers will allow women and men to come to Ottawa, contribute to the body of knowledge about human rights, expand their own expertise and return to share their knowledge with colleagues in their own professions, faculties and com- munities.
The eventual undertaking of specialized courses for various pro- fessions will have a gradual, filter- ing effect. By encouraging curriculum planners, through the provision of content and expertise, to incorporate human rights themes into educational materials and programmes, it is hoped that the general awareness and appli- cation of human rights principles will increase in Canada. Because in Canada the subject of human rights and fundamental free- doms must include the issue of the improvement of the status of native peoples, and because the issue of economic development in relation to achievement of human rights is such an acute question in the world today, the Institute would have to co-operate closely with other institutes and centres, e.
Finally, the Institute intends to co-operate with other agencies, nongovernmental organizations and individuals through its Board of Associates which will be comprised of men and women from across the country, and through possible joint research and public education programmes. This kind of co-operation should be expected since there is no other 17organization in Canada which has the same potential goals, capabilities and academic base.
For the sake of clarity in this ar- ticle, I shall nevertheless, disas- sociate the institutional and formal part from the personal part invested in human ecology education and re- search which were introduced a. Also, those aris- ing from man's relationship with his environment, and those raised conco- mitantly by the problem of cleavage of scientific disciplines.
In the first section I will deal with the situation of human eco- logy in European higher education. In the second section I shall raise the problem of scientific popularity and of disciplinarity,a problem inherent in this type of education. In the third and last section, I will explain which stake I put on human ecology. This year, a new agreement comes into being, which creates the Certifi- cate for training qualified staff having to solve problems arising from inter-actions between man and his en- vironment.
From the institutional. In addition, this cer- tificate of the third level, is award- ed under the patronage of the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health organization. In principle, this will extend over a two years period, the first year is devoted to the acquisition of general knowledge and common language. During the second year the students alone or as a group, write a study in a narrower field of knowledge. The general subjects dealt with by all the associated universities are as follows: ecological concepts, biology of man and populations, the bio-social interface, ergonomics and working con- ditions, health and conditions of living, economics and environmental management, and ecology and polis.
Each institution completes its curri- culum within this framework but in accordance with its own genius. A problem: scientific populariza- tion or plurality A common language which might have contributed in setting up human ecology was never born. If something is to be questioned it is interdisciplinarity.
If the con- cept of interdisciplinarity is more important in university discourses. In order to make a critical review while simplifying matters, the characteristics claimed for interdis- ciplinarity may be grouped in two classes 1 : 1. This second group, derived from the first one, refers to the populariza- tion of knowledge, which can be ques- tioned. Two kinds of traps results from this.
The trap in the search for a common place3 which raises a two- fold problem. First that of going beyond boundaries most often kept by institutions, and that of defining a commong ground at the cost of new boundaries. Interdisciplinarity thus becomes the mere disciplinary game of a new speciality. The trap of popula- rization, comes from the fact that it is not possible to be a specialist in all fields, and forces researchers and professors to look for and to deliver general information about disciplines which are not as yet mas- tered.
In addition, popularization does not give access to the knowledge on which it discourses, but provides information unsupported by any experience. This kind of remark, justifies the interest one may have in new approaches, while questioning inter- disciplinarity, allows several disciplines to be considered. These are transversal approaches, which some people call "transdisciplinary" and others "cross roads", I would pre- fer to call them "connotative" 2. Such approaches pose a problem, an idea, a concept, or a text which members of the research group approach individually.
Each one, thus,brings connotations, as this notional trip progresses, getting'richer and link- ing up again with one another. In the latter work, each one, adopting the notion of "time giver" originating from chronobiology, has gone "digging" in his own discipline and in the actual experience of his practice.
This "digging" carried out in economics, architecture, philoso- phy, biology, and art, produced texts which were elaborated concurrently with impassioned discussions between the authors, but which kept their autonomy. Surely differences have been developed. In that sense, this type of approach seems fruitful insofar as it is opened up to a multiplicity of potential readers. As for the result- ing work, it is not a finished or synthetic product, but more modestly, although more pretentiously from certain viewpoints , a set of connota- tions which link up step by step from which the object or the notion progressively becomes concrete, and with which everyone can and must re- compose authors as well as readers.
It is the way to learning. The researcher here, proves himself as a non-agnostic, by making an internal and apprehending approach of the object before proposing an external image thereof. It is in this sense that I 19place the stake of human ecology, I look for a humanistic answer to the new requirements raised by any at- tempted passage between the two cul- tures represented by the living and the social. Towards human ecology: a dual passage To raise the question of human ecology is, in a broad sense, looking for a certain way of going beyond a vision of reality, which is too ex- clusively social, economical or too biological.
In other words, it is- a concern aimed at understanding and saying how the social analysis needs to envisage mankind and human beings. Not only as objects or social or eco- nomical subjects or even as bioche- mical witnesses, but also as the re- cipients of a bio-social context which links up the physical, biolo- gical and chemical.
If human ecology urges one to go beyond excessively unilateral visions of things, it re- mains that it is always man who speaks and says something about a reality with which he has probably never been confronted with, and which he is consequently led to con- struct and describe. Interrogations of an epistemo- logical nature thus add up to the mere fact of going beyond a reality which is constructed, exploded and divided into monads.
This first pas- sage on human ecology calls for a second which gives access to the proper human symbolic world. I take the liberty of mention- ing Les donneurs du temps The time givers once more. As one would have understood, it is not really a ques- tion of a first and then a second passage of human ecology Cwhich would assume that one could still detect a third one but of a true dual pas- sage. Whether it corresponds to the study of bio-social interface or lends itself to a research exercice on fun- damentals to a relational interdisci-; plinary, systematic analysis, or envi- sages the birth of a new holistic dis- cipline, this first passage corresponds to a pleading.
It corresponds to the appropriation and defense of a new territory 4. A territory which is not homogeneous, empty or without dan- gers and which looks more like the extraordinary labyrinth of gulfs, channels, basins, straits and ice of the North-West Passage. A metaphor used by Michel Serres to refer to the passage from the sciences of nature to the sciences of society. It is true that one comes up against one thousand notions, the one thousand concepts of one thousand disciplines exploded in the blizzard of science, and sometimes frozen, sometimes lique- fied, depending on the currents, and the seasons..
It is a true passage that one must pass not stop. How many cheated in the nine- teenth century and later. They led us to believe that they had discovered the passage between the sciences of this world and the sciences which re- veal mankind. Un- educated scholars, are trained to forget men, their relationships, suf- fering, and mortality. Those who have been given classical education from their childhood have gone into what one calls human sciences, where they lose the world.
Educated ignoramuses devote their time to purposeless squabble. I am concerned that these twp groups are fighting only over possessions- 20which were stolen a long time ago by a third group, a sponger, ignorant and uneducated, who directs and ad- ministers them, who enjoys their di- vision and keeps it alive. With this first passage, which thus uses a metaphor to be more per- suasive, one can associate the image of conventional rhetoric, which is persuasian in the speech supported by shifts in meaning of words.
Likewise, human ecology rests in its discourse, upon concepts and notions, upon the meanings of which it plays both by going back from concepts to notions and by making the scope of the latter shift from one discipline to another and from exact sciences to human sciences. The concept of entropy of the information theory becomes notion- al in social sciences. The notion of systems spreads everywhere, the cyber- netic concept is used as a metaphor in molecular biology.
In a more pro- found way, some people show that the paradigm of rupture between biologi- cal sciences and anthropo-social sciences no longer stand, just as se- paration between culture and nature. This is the issue of human ecology. Rhetoric human ecology thus tries in the first passage. By means of figures of speech, tropes, metaphors, shifts in meaning, the power of speech which it finds in the notional loops of the various disciplines of the living and of society.
Adopting such an attitude is like taking up a kind of methodological bet on the existence of comparable problems in the fields of biological sciences and anthropo-social sciences respectively, a bet on the similar construction of reality on either side. The dual passage of human ecology: to remain connected with living reality poetics If human ecology is really the place of pleading in the sense of a first rhetoric thoroughfare, one realizes that in the approach which it has described, it gives itself the possibility of reaching another level of significance.
It would find a dual place from which a meaning could emerge. After this, one would no longer look for a definition of human eco- logy nor persuasion. Rather than de- fining or persuading, it is a ques- tion through this second passage of tirelessly recapturing subjects , of making images clash, and of going back to these images, so that the symbol and the meaning which escape conceptual analysis will emer'ge from multiplicity and from the network of significations staged and related with this human ecology.
In this way, human ecology speaks to reality with respect to a lateral dual reference. In a way, it describes reality again in a discourse where there is room for the imaginary and fiction. In this dual passage, it leaves the pleading rhetoric to reach poe- tics, a connection between myths and mimesis, a second-degree metaphoric discourse creation of meanings.
The poetical discourse mainly offers a proposed meaning and at variance with rhetoric, does not try to prove anything. Its project is mimetic and its aim is to give birth jointly to human beings and to their essential actions. There is use of metaphors, but in this case, by undoing the old order in order to describe reality again in this case, the metaphor must be understood as a categorial transgression» as a shift from an already established logical order, as disorder and noise in a classifi- cation, this transgression is then interesting because it produces meaning.
The study of this dual passage must be perfected and continued. Contribution of P. Amphoux, A. Bourrit and G. Pillet to the symposium "Conditions for a fruitful interdisciplinary dialogue", organized by the Method Institute Bienne, Switzerland at the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne on the 13th of March, See also P.
Sansot, G. Pillet, P. Amphoux and al.. Les donneurs de temps The time givers 3 Ed. Paul Castella, Albeuve Switzerland , , and P. Amphoux and G. This rapid progress is the ori- gin and result of more and more ad- vanced technology. Sophisticated tools do not concern physical or mathema- tical sciences alone, as computers, become the daily tool of the philolo- gist, psychologist or the educational researcher.
University research directly or indirectly contributes to the techno- logical development as well as bene- fiting from it. The student of today is given a higher education, mainly of the second level, in a world where power- ful techniques enable problems to be tackled which were unaccessible to mankind one or two decades ago, but where things evolve so quickly that a brief stop in the study may leave the individual with an obsolete technical capital. During a variable period of time after they have been adopted, advanced technologies are, generally, very expensive.
On the other hand, a few technologies can be applied nearly universally the best example of which is data processing. The majority of new technologies only concern relatively limited fields and can only be handled by a small number of specialists. This is why if the university is not careful, it may be- come a nursery of technocrats who, due to their hyperspecialization and to the force which may come from the monopoly of a scientific power, could 22ally with certain social groups to reconstitute a leading and opressing class« Some researchers appear to be intoxicated by their achievements and the success of their investigations, to such an extent that, for them, the technical performance becomes an end in itself instead of serving mankind.
In this way appears the possible divorce between humanism and the uni- versity, at least if, by humanism one means the service of man, since he re- mains the measure of everything, cannot be the victim of any aliena- tion and who, in total solidarity with all the members of the community, and in total freedom, always moves back the boundaries of his universe and keeps the possibility of judge- ment using his critical mind, taking initiatives, creating, and choosing.
What can the university do in its relation with technology in order to serve humanism? First, it should give its students a humanistic educa- tion from the beginning of the higher education cycle. In addition to the example which each teacher should give in his way of living, the uni- versity should on the one hand, start from a general philosophical thinking, to be thought out and deepened through- out the studies and discuss with the student how each encountered tech- nique can best serve the individual person and the community.
Some people have claimed that it is the responsibility of secondary education to set up bases for general education, including philosophy, and that higher education should directly focus on specialized training schemes. This approach excludes the many stu- dents who enter university when they still are only teenagers.
These young adults have an intellectual and af- fective freshness which is particu- larly favourable to some thinking about values and to the approach of great scientific and social systems. That is why, in our world of narrower specialization and more ad- vanced technicality, the general na- ture of the beginning of university studies is so important.
Man will be studied by biology, psychology and philosophy. Sociological and political thinking and social antrophology will complete this general base. Another part of this first edu- cation should deal with the general techniques and methods of science. Epistemology also has a place here. What is more enlightening and more stimulating for young people than the present debate on the nomothetic approach in its relationship with and its opposition to the historical ap- proach between "quantitative" and "qualitative"?
This general thinking should continue throughout the stu- dies and result in a synthesis on their completion. Anyone who follows students throughout their years of higher education, knows how much they mature during this period and may be- nefit in the end from a return to general ideas met before. It is often objected that, in spite of the interest of this general higher education, it is not possible to find room for it because of the heavy university curriculum.
It is a serious mistake to which Einstein reacted vigorously. An example will help to show why. Let us assume that the technicality of an educational programme becomes such that it would tend to produce asocial profession- als unable to relocate the "parti- cular" within the "general".
Would we accept it? We have a strong feel- ing that the answer is no. Such questions will arise with an increas- ing acuity and it is our responsibi- lity to answer them. The intellectual who cannot lo- cate his activity within the frame- work of his discipline and social life, who cannot widen his thinking, is a troubled and miserable person.
Other aspects of the action of universities in their relations with techniques are worth examining. Uni- versities must show, whenever the opportunity arises, how a technique can yield moral or intellectual pro- gress. At the present time, data 23processing is the best example. The computer, a Promethean instrument, only carries out the instructions received. It serves the undivided authority, the routine and implacable regulations as well as creativity and fulfilment.
To the extreme, it may programme man or be programmed by him. Papert has shown how the com- puter may be put in the hands of a child to help him build up his knowledge and intelligence. Thus, the child will acquire a better articulated mastery of the world, the sense of the force of applied knowledge, and a confident and realistic picture of himself".
CD Such a perspective is obviously that of humanism, however on one condition, let not this opportunity be reserved for a minority defined in accordance with elitist criteria or others. One must also be concerned about the right of adopting techno- logies which are so expensive that only a well-to-do or otherwise pri- vileged minority may have access. However, this is not necessarily a reason to stop techno- logical development. One might have believed, for instance, that compu- ters would be only accessible to the most favoured countries while in less than two decades their decreas- ing cost made them accessible to everybody.
One1 must nevertheless still be concerned about the best way to serve all men. The university has a duty to serve humanism and democracy since its teachings and the outcome of its research work could be used to harm them. Is there a duty of popularization of technology?
The answer is resolute- ly yes. All members of the community have the right to know what a new tech- nique can do for mankind, what its implementation limits are and how much it costs. Popularization, however, raises a difficult problem as it requires that the "scholar" make a choice be- tween characteristics and data, which is not necessarily innocent.
This choice itself must consequently be the subject of a democratic check, which can be carried out in particular, by an independent press with the help of trusted experts. Finally, there is a last re- quirement of "exposure". The community must know what is the cost of the re- search work necessary to discovery and that of using a given technique. What possibly had to be sacrificed for its benefit or what else will have to be sacrificed.
Have those'who be- nefited from it the greatest need for it or are they privileged by a go- vernment or fortune? The requirements laid out above, simply arise from the democratic control of higher education and its being in the service of democracy. Did we move from our topic by taking this course? We do not think so, genuine democracy and humanism merge into one another. Introduction: the service of mankind depending on the epoch Right or wrong, the university was always convinced of being of ser- vice to mankind.
Depending on the time, this service was conceived dif- ferently. Today's university is obliged to solve the antinomy between two trends, one derived from tradi- tion and that which today's world wants to impose. Tradition requests the univer- sity to refer to the abstract repre- sentation of the universal Man. It must develop and get the privileged persons of whom it consists or who attend it, to share the knowledge of the physical and human world and phi- losophical or theological thinking.
The "elite" or "executives" of uni- versity-educated, will have to see that they commit themselves personally by being of service to society. This elite has a twofold social role, that of a relay for culture, in the broad- est sense of the word, i.
It seems that knowledge and education3 power and responsibi- lity must characterize university members. The finality of university education is thus specified in the line of tradition. The pressure of today's worlds felt from the outside and inside, takes the university back to a con- cern which claims to be central : the concrete man3 "in" a given situation. It should consider man in terms of every aspect of his private and social life. Society invests in it. It awaits the fruits of this investment.
For society, these fruits take the shape of the sodo-economical output understood as a source of well being for its members. As years go by, the latter also ask for more "culture" and "happiness", without clarifying their meaning. They demand the share of knowledge and by that, sharing power and the right to responsibility This leads to a serious ambiguity. Is knowledge, power and responsibi- lity received from others by legacy, by lineage or by mandate?
Is it the normal consequence of democratically inspired institutional provisions acknowledging all men as equal and entitled to higher education? Is knowledge, power and responisbility the democratic concept for the greatest fulfilment of everyone, the right for everyone to take part in the conquest of knowledge, of power and of the responsibility the latter assumes? The statement that the univer- sity is in the service of mankind depends onwidely different representa- tions in different periods of time.
One can understand these representa- tions by referring to sociological concepts. The proclamation of the right of everyone to the highest level of education and its enforcement has changed the university. It changed from an elite university to a mass university. The education-investment theory emphasized the relationship between university and economy and was conducive to the concept of spe- cialized education, or an education directly related to specific jobs.
The problems of industrialized countries and those of developing countries, have shown the limitations of the education investment theory, while they called for a new one, that of the development of human resources. Essentially based on the idea of transfer or adaptability of skills"; this theory leads to a new definition of general education and of the links between general educa- tion and specialization. Relations between university and society The university, which yester- day was isolated from the rest of the society, has agreed today to leave its "ivory tower".
It did it willingly or reluctantly as the school did at other levels in the teaching system. It agrees that it constitutes a subsystem of the over- all social system. It is aware that it participates in the social dyna- mics, that it contributes to it and itself evolves in and by this dyna- mics. This raises the problem of its specificity, its identity3 as well as that of its sociological integra- tion. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website.
These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Necessary Always Enabled Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly.
It covers problems of higher education in the Unesco European Region, which includes, besides all the countries of Europe, Canada, Israel and the United States of America.
|Euro 2022 group betting online||In order to share the concerns of local and regional communities and in order to answer them, some people propose to push on fundamental science, to educate students for research work through action so that they will be- come the efficient relais which the university academics used to be, the latter being at that time, in contact with a small proportion of the po- pulation. Today the German Democratic Republic has a socialist, modern and well developed higher and specialized secondary education, a differentiated network of maria nikolova forex charts universities and 47 higher education institutions, as well as specialized secondary edu- cation read article, out of which 92 are polytechnical and agronomic schools, where somestudents. The multi-campus central staff is highly dependent on personal ties to the Chancellor. The introduction of the experi- mental method in educational sciences has certainly contributed to a large extent, in emphasizing the picture of the real man rather than that of the ideal man. Did we move from our topic by taking this course? This is rela- tively new and is not a fact for the majority of teachers.|
|Maria nikolova forex charts||Let us assume that the technicality of an educational programme becomes such that it would tend to produce asocial profession- als unable to relocate the "parti- cular" within the "general". A few quick comments follow which give an idea of the problems that arose as a result of the encoun- ter between scientific knowledge carried out by the researchers, and empirical knowledge expressed by maria nikolova forex charts operators and by the population: One of the major obstacles was the difficulty of communication be- tween the two types of knowledge and the resistance to new knowledge. The university would like to enliven society by helping its mem- bers to acquire a creative mind, a taste for involvment and risks. Scienza e rea- lismo Science and Realism. The administrative as well as educational keystone of the multi- campus university is its chief exe- cutive officer. Yester- day's university claimed that it ope- rated for their benefit. In this case, there is, in principle, a correlation be- tween the speciality learned, and the future profession such as in medicine, architecture, polytechnic, agronomy, etc.|
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