The proposed EU Financial Transaction Tax would cause the short-term repo market in Europe to contract by an estimated amount of at least 66%, with serious. Base tax: Financial instruments. Location of its levy: Infrastructures. FX. Bonds. Equities. Derivatives. Trading markets. Clearing houses. Settlement. This paper empirically examines the introduction of a financial transaction tax (FTT) on equity trading in France. We motivate our analysis by. FOODLER BITCOIN
In a CFD, the seller of the contract will pay the buyer the difference between the price at an agreed upon date and the price at the time of contract. An investor who buys a CFD has identical exposure to the underlying instrument as if they had bought the underlying instrument. Under an FTT, investors may attempt to avoid the tax by substituting derivatives for their underlying instruments.
If regulation made this infeasible, investors may shift to the already-active equity options markets and use synthetic positions  instead of trading in the underlying securities. Barring further regulation of these instruments, traders will have opportunities to avoid an FTT while maintaining the exposure they are seeking. The market value of a derivative is typically a fraction of its notional value theoretically, market value may be as little as zero. The extent to which investors replace equities with derivatives is dependent not only on the precise implementation details of the law but also the individual risk preferences of market participants, which presents uncertainty when estimating how much revenue an FTT would raise.
Distortion of Investment Decisions Bias against short-term investing already exists in the tax code because of the variable treatment of capital gains, as investments held for over a year are subject to lower tax rates. Additionally, because the capital gains tax is triggered by the sale of assets, investors are incentivized to hold on to assets for a longer period of time—this is known as the lock-in effect.
In the case of negative returns, an investor would still pay the FTT despite realizing a loss. Because an FTT is levied each time an asset is traded, even more casual retail investors would be incentivized to trade less often. Figure 1 provides an example of the tax burden an investor might face, depending on how frequently they rebalance.
The capital gains tax represents a slight penalty on frequent rebalancing, whereas the FTT burden scales linearly with rebalance frequency. While an FTT could reduce the noise generated by speculative trading, this penalty against rebalancing runs contrary to the stated goal of reducing risky financial activity as it discourages portfolio diversification. The taxation of derivatives is a catch As discussed previously, if derivatives are under-taxed, investors will be incentivized to substitute high-leverage derivatives for their underlying security and will be subject to the additional risks associated with trading those derivatives.
Conversely, over-taxing derivatives will reduce the effectiveness of derivatives as risk management tools. There are numerous usages of derivatives as hedges, such as protecting against downside risk in equities, or trading interest rate derivatives to hedge away interest risk on a large loan. An FTT discourages all such activity and incentivizes retail and institutional investors to leave risk unhedged.
While its proponents frequently cite the financial crisis as justification for an FTT, the tax would not curb the systemic risk that led to the crisis. Rather, because the tax would increase transaction costs, the usage of leveraged instruments would become more appealing if derivatives were under-taxed.
However, if the rate on derivatives is too high, the FTT could also prevent derivatives from being used as hedges. In either case, an FTT could encourage the accumulation of large directional risk. Liquidity describes how easy it is to enter and exit positions and is often associated with volume—and certain metrics of liquidity, such as Amihud illiquidity,  incorporate volume in their calculations.
Nonetheless, volume and liquidity are separate concepts. From a practical perspective, liquidity can be measured by the combination of the bid-ask spread and quoted depth. The bid is the best price at which a prospective investor can immediately sell a given security, whereas the ask is the best price at which the security could immediately be bought. The difference between these two prices, or the bid-ask spread, represents an implicit transaction cost that an investor will pay when they submit a market order.
A market with a tight bid-ask spread might still not be considered liquid if the quoted depth is low: an investor attempting to make a large sale or purchase will be unable to do so without moving the market. In , bid-ask spreads in the most actively traded stocks could be as much as 2 to 5 percent of the asset price. Existing evidence strongly suggests that HFT is partially responsible for this decrease.
Hendershott, Jones, and Menkveld  found that algorithmic trading AT  has reduced quoted bid-ask spreads in high-market capitalization stocks, although the quoted depth has decreased. The net effect has been a substantial decrease in effective spreads. In , the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada instituted a messaging fee, which applied to trades as well as orders submitted and canceled. Bid-ask spreads increased by 13 percent and effective spreads increased by 9 percent.
Saret  found that in France, the average bid-ask spread in taxed equities increased by 75 basis points—when combined with the tax, transaction costs more than tripled. Similarly, in Italy, the bid-ask spread on taxed Italian equities increased by 86 basis points relative to non-Italian equities of similar market capitalization.
It is difficult to project the results of the foreign FTTs to the current U. Nonetheless, the evidence strongly suggests that under an FTT, investors would incur costs not only from the tax itself but also from the higher bid-ask spreads. Volume The impact that an FTT will have on the volume of trades is the most important effect of the tax, as it will determine the amount of revenue that the tax can raise.
Under an FTT, volume would decline across some or all asset types. The exact effect would largely be determined by the rates assigned to each asset type. For example, the United Kingdom taxes stock trades while derivatives are exempt. This tax has resulted in the expansion of the UK derivatives market—contracts for difference CFD have been substituted for equities and now make up about 40 percent of trading in the UK.
This would reduce equity volume, offset by an increase in derivative volume. Both taxes had narrow bases, exempting both low-market capitalization stocks and certain types of trades in the taxed securities. Trading volume of French equities subject to the tax fell by 24 percent compared to French equities not subject to the tax, and likewise volume in Italian equities subject to the tax fell 8 percent compared to those not subject to the tax.
Because of the differences in tax structure between those FTTs and the ones proposed in the U. In their revenue estimate of the Inclusive Prosperity Act,  Pollin, Heintz, and Herndon assume that under the Inclusive Prosperity Act, volume across all securities would uniformly drop by 50 percent.
However, this assumption may not be conservative. Transaction costs have declined substantially: bid-ask spreads in the most actively traded equities are just a couple basis points. Simultaneously, many proprietary trading firms, hedge funds, and banks have seen declines in trading revenues  ,  ,  in recent years, making them less able to absorb the increased transaction costs.
Finally, the profit may be subject to capital gains tax and stamp duty. Now, let's look at a comparable spread bet. In making this spread bet, the next step is to decide what amount to commit per "point," the variable that reflects the price move.
The value of a point can vary. In this case, we will assume that one point equals a one pence change, up or down, in the Vodaphone share price. In the U. However, while spread bettors do not pay commissions, they may suffer from the bid-offer spread, which may be substantially wider than the spread in other markets.
Keep in mind also that the bettor has to overcome the spread just to break even on a trade. Generally, the more popular the security traded, the tighter the spread, lowering the entry cost. In addition to the absence of commissions and taxes, the other major benefit of spread betting is that the required capital outlay is dramatically lower.
The use of leverage works both ways, of course, and herein lies the danger of spread betting. As the market moves in your favor, higher returns will be realized; on the other hand, as the market moves against you, you will incur greater losses. While you can quickly make a large amount of money on a relatively small deposit, you can lose it just as fast. If the price of Vodaphone fell in the above example, the bettor may eventually have been asked to increase the deposit or even have had the position closed out automatically.
In such a situation, stock market traders have the advantage of being able to wait out a down move in the market, if they still believe the price is eventually heading higher. Managing Risk in Spread Betting Despite the risk that comes with the use of high leverage, spread betting offers effective tools to limit losses. Standard stop-loss orders: Stop-loss orders reduce risk by automatically closing out a losing trade once a market passes a set price level.
In the case of a standard stop-loss, the order will close out your trade at the best available price once the set stop value has been reached. It's possible that your trade can be closed out at a worse level than that of the stop trigger, especially when the market is in a state of high volatility. Guaranteed stop-loss orders: This form of stop-loss order guarantees to close your trade at the exact value you have set, regardless of the underlying market conditions. However, this form of downside insurance is not free.
Guaranteed stop-loss orders typically incur an additional charge from your broker. Risk can also be mitigated by the use of arbitrage, betting two ways simultaneously. Spread Betting Arbitrage Arbitrage opportunities arise when the prices of identical financial instruments vary in different markets or among different companies.
As a result, the financial instrument can be bought low and sold high simultaneously. An arbitrage transaction takes advantage of these market inefficiencies to gain risk-free returns. Due to widespread access to information and increased communication, opportunities for arbitrage in spread betting and other financial instruments have been limited.
However, spread betting arbitrage can still occur when two companies take separate stances on the market while setting their own spreads. At the expense of the market maker, an arbitrageur bets on spreads from two different companies. Simply put, the trader buys low from one company and sells high in another. Whether the market increases or decreases does not dictate the amount of return.
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As its name implies, HFT relies on the ability to conduct many trades in very short time frames—high-frequency traders sometimes hold positions for small fractions of seconds.
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|Flankers csgo betting||If the price of Vodaphone fell in the above example, the bettor may eventually have been asked to increase the deposit or even have had the position closed out automatically. Counterargument: Even though one cannot specify exactly who will really pay the tax, the tax incidence issue is at least clearer in the case of an FTT than in the case of a bank levy or a financial activities tax. The externality arises because contagion effects are not completely internalised by the individual contracting parties. The taxed securities should include spot and derivative transactions through exchanges and over the counter. The tax might also be passed on to owners of financial institutions. Unfortunately, so has the Commission. However, the tax should not apply to new security issuances or offerings of financial services provided by financial institutions to customers.|
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